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  1. Oxford university dating
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  3. ❤️  Link №1: https://bit.ly/2AAMyMb
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  5. ❤️  Link №2: http://majobocho.fastdownloadcloud.ru/dt?s=YToyOntzOjc6InJlZmVyZXIiO3M6MjQ6Imh0dHA6Ly9zdGlra2VkLmNvbV8yX2R0LyI7czozOiJrZXkiO3M6MjQ6Ik94Zm9yZCB1bml2ZXJzaXR5IGRhdGluZyI7fQ==
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  79. Retrieved 21 October 2014. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. In a post-reproductive world this dating has a whole other endgame in sight. The 23-year-old fell for Matthew Janney following her split from Will Adamowicz last summer.
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  81. Archived from on 1 February 2009. Further, once paired off our neurochemistry has evolved to encourage us to stay in this parenting relationship until we have reared all our children to maturity and they, themselves, have the opportunity to reproduce and pass on those all-important family genes. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
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  83. University of Oxford - Archbishop of Canterbury website. Asking the questions what is mating in post-menopausal life for?
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  85. For other uses, see. The University of Oxford is a in. There is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the and the. It grew rapidly from 1167 when banned English students from attending the. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to where they established what became the. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. University of Oxford Other students 500 Location , England, UK Campus Athletics The Affiliations Website The university is made up of , and a range of academic departments which are organised into four. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. It does not have a main campus, and its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre. It operates the world's oldest , as well as the largest in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. The university is consistently cited as among the world's best. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including , 27 and many heads of state and government around the world. As of 2017, , , and have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford. Its alumni have won 160. Oxford is the home of the , one of the world's oldest international scholarships. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being. It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the. The historian lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, , arrived in 1190. The head of the university had the title of from at least 1201, and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to , later forming the. In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many , including , , and , settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were , who in 1249 endowed , and , father of a future ; bears his name. Another founder, , a of England and afterwards , devised a series of regulations for college life; thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford, as well as at the University of Cambridge. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333—34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at , was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King. Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London; thus, Oxford and Cambridge had a duopoly, which was unusual in large western European countries. Renaissance period In 1605 Oxford was still a walled city, but several colleges had been built outside the city walls north is at the bottom on this map The new learning of the greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were , who contributed to the revival of studies, and , the noted. With the and the breaking of communion with the , scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling especially at the. The method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the ; enrolments fell and teaching was neglected. In 1636 , the chancellor and , codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its governing regulations until the mid-19th century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the , and he made significant contributions to the , the main library of the university. An engraving of Christ Church, Oxford, 1742 The university was a centre of the party during the 1642—1649 , while the town favoured the opposing cause. From the mid-18th century onwards, however, the university took little part in political conflicts. Wren was part of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the 1650s, the , which included and. This group held regular meetings at Wadham under the guidance of the College's Warden, , and the group formed the nucleus which went on to found the. Modern period Students Before reforms in the early 19th century the curriculum at Oxford was notoriously narrow and impractical. It was impossible to collect some thousand or twelve hundred of the best young man in England, to give them the opportunity of making acquaintance with one another, and full liberty to live their lives in their own way, without evolving in the best among them, some admirable qualities of loyalty, independence, and self-control. If the average undergraduate carried from University little or no learning, which was of any service to him, he carried from it a knowledge of men and respect for his fellows and himself, a reverence for the past, a code of honour for the present, which could not but be serviceable. He had enjoyed opportunities... He might have mixed with them in his sports, in his studies, and perhaps in his debating society; and any associations which he had this formed had been useful to him at the time, and might be a source of satisfaction to him in after life. Out of the students who matriculated in 1840, 65% were sons of professionals 34% were Anglican ministers. After graduation 87% became professionals 59% as Anglican clergy. Out of the students who matriculated in 1870, 59% were sons of professionals 25% were Anglican ministers. After graduation 87% became professionals 42% as Anglican clergy. Jones argue that the rise of organised sport was one of the most remarkable and distinctive features of the history of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was carried over from the athleticism prevalent at the public schools such as , , , and. At the start of 1914 the university housed about 3,000 undergraduates and about 100 postgraduate students. During the First World War many undergraduates and Fellows joined the armed forces. The records that, in total, 14,792 members of the university served in the war, with 2,716 18. Not all the members of the university who served in the Great War were on the Allied side; there is a remarkable memorial to members of New College who served in the German armed forces, bearing the inscription, 'In memory of the men of this college who coming from a foreign land entered into the inheritance of this place and returning fought and died for their country in the war 1914—1918'. During the war years the university buildings became hospitals, cadet schools and military training camps. Reforms Two parliamentary commissions in 1852 issued recommendations for Oxford and Cambridge. The Commission's report envisioned a centralised university run predominantly by professors and faculties, with a much stronger emphasis on research. The professional staff should be strengthened and better paid. For students, restrictions on entry should be dropped, and more opportunity given to poorer families. It called for an enlargement of the curriculum, with honours to be awarded in many new fields. Undergraduate scholarships should be open to all Britons. Graduate fellowships should be opened up to all members of the university. It recommended that fellows be released from an obligation for ordination. Students were to be allowed to save money by boarding in the city, instead of in a college. The system of separate for different subjects began in 1802, with Mathematics and. Theology became the sixth honour school. In addition to these B. Honours degrees, the postgraduate was, and still is, offered. The influence of the reformed model of German universities reached Oxford via key scholars such as , and. Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for , and the establishment of four women's colleges. Privy Council decisions in the 20th century e. Furthermore, although the university's emphasis had historically been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded during the 19th century to include scientific and medical studies. Knowledge of was required for admission until 1920, and Latin until 1960. The University of Oxford began to award doctorates in the first third of the 20th century. The first Oxford DPhil in mathematics was awarded in 1921. The mid-20th century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by and communism, relocating to Oxford. The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature. More than 50 Nobel laureates and more than 50 world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford. In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women AEW was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford. Some of the more prominent members of the association were , and. Talbot insisted on a specifically institution, which was unacceptable to most of the other members. The two parties eventually split, and Talbot's group founded in 1878, while T. Green founded the non-denominational in 1879. Lady Margaret Hall and Somerville opened their doors to their first 21 students 12 from Somerville, 9 from Lady Margaret Hall in 1879, who attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop. There were also 25 women students living at home or with friends in 1879, a group which evolved into the Society of Oxford Home-Students and in 1952 into. These first three societies for women were followed by 1886 and 1893. All of these colleges later became coeducational, starting with and in 1979, and finishing with , which began to accept male students in 2008. In the early 20th century, Oxford and Cambridge were widely perceived to be bastions of , however the integration of women into Oxford moved forward during the First World War. In 1916 women were admitted as medical students on a par with men, and in 1917 the university accepted financial responsibility for women's examinations. On 7 October 1920 women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees. In 1927 the university's dons created a quota that limited the number of female students to a quarter that of men, a ruling which was not abolished until 1957. However, during this period Oxford colleges were , so the number of women was also limited by the capacity of the women's colleges to admit students. It was not until 1959 that the women's colleges were given full collegiate status. In 1974, , , , and became the first previously all-male colleges to admit women. The majority of men's colleges accepted their first female students in 1979, with following in 1980, and becoming the last men's college to admit women in 1985. Most of Oxford's graduate colleges were founded as coeducational establishments in the 20th century, with the exception of St Anthony's, which was founded as a men's college in 1950 and began to accept women only in 1962. By 1988, 40% of undergraduates at Oxford were female; in 2016, 45% of the student population, and 47% of undergraduate students, were female. In June 2017, Oxford announced that starting the following academic year, history students may choose to sit a take-home exam in some courses, with the intention that this will equalise rates of firsts awarded to women and men at Oxford. That same summer, maths and computer science tests were extended by 15 minutes, in a bid to see if female student scores would improve. The detective novel by , herself one of the first women to gain an academic degree from Oxford, is largely set in the all-female based on Sayers' own , and the issue of women's education is central to its plot. Social historian and Somerville College alumna 's book Bluestockings: A Remarkable History of the First Women to Fight for an Education gives a very detailed and immersive account of this history. The , in which most science departments are located, is the area that bears closest resemblance to a campus. The ten-acre 4 hectare in the northwest of the city is currently under development. However, the larger colleges' sites are of similar size to these areas. Iconic university buildings include the , the used for music concerts, lectures, and university ceremonies, and the , where examinations and some lectures take place. The was used for university ceremonies before the construction of the Sheldonian. In 2012—13, the university built the controversial one-hectare 400m × 25m development of 4—5-storey blocks of student flats overlooking and the historic , blocking views of the spires in the city centre. Parks Autumn in the The are a 70-acre 28 ha parkland area in the northeast of the city, near , and. It is open to the public during daylight hours. As well as providing gardens and exotic plants, the Parks contains numerous sports fields, used for official and unofficial fixtures, and also contains sites of special interest including the Genetic Garden, an experimental garden to elucidate and investigate evolutionary processes. The on the is the oldest in the UK. It contains over 8,000 different plant species on 1. It is one of the most diverse yet compact major collections of plants in the world and includes representatives of over 90% of the higher plant families. The is a 130-acre 53 ha site six miles 10 km south of the city that includes native woodland and 67 acres 27 hectares of meadow. There are also various collegiate-owned open spaces open to the public, including and most notably. See also: As a , Oxford's structure can be confusing to those unfamiliar with it. The university is a federation, comprising over forty self-governing and , along with a central administration headed by the. Academic departments are located centrally within the structure of the federation; they are not affiliated with any particular college. Departments provide facilities for teaching and research, determine the syllabi and guidelines for the teaching of students, perform research, and deliver lectures and seminars. Colleges arrange the tutorial teaching for their undergraduates, and the members of an academic department are spread around many colleges. Though certain colleges do have subject alignments e. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the central university the , by the departments individual departmental libraries, such as the English Faculty Library , and by colleges each of which maintains a multi-discipline library for the use of its members. Central governance The university's formal head is the , currently , though as at most British universities, the Chancellor is a titular figure and is not involved with the day-to-day running of the university. The Chancellor is elected by the members of , a body comprising all graduates of the university, and holds office until death. Five pro-vice-chancellors have specific responsibilities for education; research; planning and resources; development and external affairs; and personnel and equal opportunities. The University Council is the executive policy-forming body, which consists of the vice-chancellor as well as heads of departments and other members elected by , in addition to observers from the. Two university , elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges, are the internal ombudsmen who make sure that the university and its members adhere to its statutes. This role incorporates student welfare and discipline, as well as oversight of the university's proceedings. The university's professors are collectively referred to as the. They are particularly influential in the running of the university's graduate programmes. Examples of statutory professors are the and the. The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes are organised into four , each with its own head and elected board. They are the Humanities division; the Social Sciences Division; the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division; and the Medical Sciences Division. Colleges Darbishire quad, , one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford To be a member of the university, all students, and most academic staff, must also be a member of a college or hall. There are 38 and six , each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Not all colleges offer all courses, but they generally cover a broad range of subjects. One difference between a college and a PPH is that whereas colleges are governed by the fellows of the college, the governance of a PPH resides, at least in part, with the corresponding Christian denomination. The Conference of Colleges was established as a recommendation of the Commission in 1965. Teaching members of the colleges i. In addition to residential and dining facilities, the colleges provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members. Colleges have responsibility for admitting undergraduates and organising their tuition; for graduates, this responsibility falls upon the departments. There is no common title for the heads of colleges: the titles used include Warden, Provost, Principal, President, Rector, Master and Dean. Finances Dining hall at Christ Church. The colleges had a total income of £415m, While the university has a larger annual income and operating budget, the colleges have a larger aggregate endowment: over £3. The Central University's endowment, along with some of the colleges', is managed by the university's wholly owned endowment management office, Oxford University Endowment Management, formed in 2007. The university has substantial investments in fossil fuel companies, and in 2014 began consultations on whether it should follow some US universities which have committed to sell off their fossil fuel investments. The university was one of the first in the UK to raise money through a major public fundraising campaign, the. This is looking to support three areas: academic posts and programmes, student support, and buildings and infrastructure; having passed its original target of £1. The campaign had raised a total of £2 billion by May 2015. Affiliations Oxford is a member of the of research-led , the , the , and the. Percentage of state-school students at Oxford and Cambridge In common with most British universities, prospective students apply through the application system, but prospective applicants for the University of Oxford, along with those for medicine, dentistry, and applicants, must observe an earlier deadline of 15 October. To allow a more personalised judgement of students, who might otherwise apply for both, undergraduate applicants are not permitted to apply to both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year. The only exceptions are applicants for and those applying to read for a second undergraduate degree. Most applicants choose to apply to one of the individual colleges, which work with each other to ensure that the best students gain a place somewhere at the university regardless of their college preferences. Shortlisting is based on achieved and predicted exam results, school references, and, in some subjects, written admission tests or candidate-submitted written work. Approximately 60% of applicants are shortlisted, although this varies by subject. If a large number of shortlisted applicants for a subject choose one college, then students who named that college may be reallocated randomly to under-subscribed colleges for the subject. The colleges then invite shortlisted candidates for interview, where they are provided with food and accommodation for around three days in December. Most applicants will be individually interviewed by academics at more than one college. Students from outside Europe can be interviewed remotely, for example, over the Internet. Offers are sent out in early January, with each offer usually being from a specific college. One in four successful candidates receives an offer from a college that they did not apply to. The university has come under criticism for the number of students it accepts from ; for instance, 's rejection from the university in 2000 led to widespread debate. In 2016, the University of Oxford gave 59% of offers to UK students to students from state schools, while about 93% of all UK pupils and 86% of post-16 UK pupils are educated in state schools. However, 64% of UK applicants were from state schools and the university notes that state school students apply disproportionately to oversubscribed subjects. Oxford University spends over £6 million per year on outreach programs to encourage applicants from underrepresented demographics. In 2018 the university's annual admissions report revealed that approximately one third of Oxford's colleges had accepted three or fewer black applicants. The university itself is responsible for conducting examinations and conferring degrees. Undergraduate teaching takes place during three eight-week academic terms: , and. These are officially known as 'Full Term': 'Term' is a lengthier period with little practical significance. Undergraduates must be in residence from Thursday of 0th week. These teaching terms are shorter than those of most other British universities, and their total duration amounts to less than half the year. However, undergraduates are also expected to do some academic work during the three holidays known as the Christmas, Easter, and Long Vacations. Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university. Scholarships and financial support — home to the awarding body for the , often considered to be the world's most prestigious scholarship There are many opportunities for students at Oxford to receive financial help during their studies. The Oxford Opportunity Bursaries, introduced in 2006, are university-wide means-based bursaries available to any British undergraduate, with a total possible grant of £10,235 over a 3-year degree. In addition, individual colleges also offer bursaries and funds to help their students. For graduate study, there are many scholarships attached to the university, available to students from all sorts of backgrounds, from to the relatively new Weidenfeld Scholarships. Oxford also offers the which is open to graduate applicants of all nationalities. The Clarendon Scholarship is principally funded by in association with colleges and other partnership awards. Students successful in early examinations are rewarded by their colleges with scholarships and , normally the result of a long-standing endowment, although since the introduction of tuition fees the amounts of money available are purely nominal. Libraries See also: The university maintains the largest university library system in the UK, and, with over 11 million volumes housed on 120 miles 190 km of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the UK, after the. The Bodleian is a library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK. As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles five kilometres of shelving every year. The buildings referred to as the university's main research library, , consist of the original Bodleian Library in the Old Schools Quadrangle, founded by in 1598 and opened in 1602, the , the , and the. A tunnel underneath connects these buildings, with the Gladstone Link, which opened to readers in 2011, connecting the Old Bodleian and Radcliffe Camera. The is home to many senior Bodleian Library staff and previously housed the university's own central administration The group was formed in 2000, bringing the Bodleian Library and some of the subject libraries together. It now comprises 28 libraries, a number of which have been created by bringing previously separate collections together, including the , and. Another major product of this collaboration has been a joint integrated library system, Oxford Libraries Information System , and its public interface, SOLO Search Oxford Libraries Online , which provides an electronic catalogue covering all member libraries, as well as the libraries of individual colleges and other faculty libraries, which are not members of the group but do share cataloguing information. A new book depository opened in , in October 2010, and recent building projects include the remodelling of the New Bodleian building, which was renamed the Weston Library when it reopened in 2015. The renovation is designed to better showcase the library's various treasures which include a Shakespeare and a as well as temporary exhibitions. The Bodleian engaged in a mass-digitisation project with in 2004. Museums See also: Oxford maintains a number of museums and galleries, open for free to the public. The , founded in 1683, is the oldest museum in the UK, and the oldest university museum in the world. It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by , , , and , as well as treasures such as the , the and the. The holds the university's zoological, entomological and geological specimens. It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on , in the university's. Among its collection are the skeletons of a and , and the most complete remains of a found anywhere in the world. It also hosts the , currently held by. The interior of the Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the , founded in 1884, which displays the university's archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items. It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General stipulated that the university establish a lectureship in anthropology. The is housed on Broad St in the world's oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building. It contains 15,000 artefacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the. In the Faculty of Music on is the of Musical Instruments, a collection mostly of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards. Publishing Main article: The Oxford University Press is the world's second oldest and currently the largest by the number of publications. More than 6,000 new books are published annually, including many reference, professional, and academic works such as the , the , the , the , and the. Rankings and reputation British Government assessment Gold Oxford is regularly ranked within the top 10 universities in the world and is currently ranked first in the world in the , as well as the 's World University Rankings. The university is fifth worldwide on the ranking. Its came 23rd in the world in Financial Times Global MBA Ranking. Oxford is ranked 5th best university worldwide and 1st in Britain for forming s according to the. It is ranked first in the UK for the quality of its graduates as chosen by the recruiters of the UK's major companies. In the 2018 , all 38 subjects offered by Oxford rank within the top 10 nationally meaning Oxford was one of only two multi-faculty universities along with in the UK to have 100% of their subjects in the top 10. Computer Science, Medicine, philosophy, Politics and Psychology were ranked first in the UK by the guide. According to the QS World University Rankings by Subject, the University of Oxford also ranks as number one in the world for four Humanities disciplines: English Language and Literature, , , and. An undergraduate student at the University of Oxford in for matriculation is required for examinations, matriculation, disciplinary hearings, and when visiting university officers. A referendum held amongst the Oxford student body in 2015 showed 76% against making it voluntary in examinations — 8,671 students voted, with the 40. This was widely interpreted by students as being a vote on not so much making voluntary, but rather, in effect, abolishing it by default, in that if a minority of people came to exams without subfusc, the rest would soon follow. In July 2012 the regulations regarding academic dress were modified to be more inclusive to people. Other traditions and customs vary by college. For example, some colleges have six times a week, but in others this only happens occasionally. At most colleges these formal meals require gowns to be worn, and a Latin grace is said. Balls are major events held by colleges; the largest, held triennially in 9th week of Trinity Term, are called ; the dress code is usually. Many other colleges hold smaller events during the year that they call summer balls or parties. These are usually held on an annual or irregular basis, and are usually. There are several more or less quirky traditions peculiar to individual colleges, for example the. Clubs and societies Rowing at Summer Eights, an annual intercollegiate Sport is played between college teams, in tournaments known as the term is also used for some non-sporting competitions. In addition to these there are higher standard. Significant focus is given to annual matches played against Cambridge, the most famous of which is , watched by a TV audience of between five and ten million viewers. This outside interest reflects the importance of rowing to many of those within the university. Much attention is given to the termly intercollegiate rowing regattas: Christ Church Regatta, and. A is an award given to those who compete at the university team level in certain sports. As well as traditional sports, there are teams for activities such as and. There are two weekly student newspapers: the independent and OUSU's. Other publications include the , , the satirical , and the graduate. Most colleges have chapel choirs. Music, drama, and other arts societies exist both at collegiate level and as university-wide groups. Unlike most other collegiate societies, musical ensembles actively encourage players from other colleges. The 's debating chamber Most academic areas have student societies of some form which are open to students studying all courses, for example the. There are groups for almost all faiths, political parties, countries and cultures. The not to be confused with the Oxford University Student Union hosts weekly debates and high-profile speakers. There have historically been elite invite-only societies such as the. Oxford SU and common rooms The , better known by its acronym Oxford SU, exists to represent students in the university's decision-making, to act as the voice for students in the national higher education policy debate, and to provide direct services to the student body. Reflecting the collegiate nature of the University of Oxford itself, Oxford SU is both an association of Oxford's more than 21,000 individual students and a federation of the affiliated college common rooms, and other affiliated organisations that represent subsets of the undergraduate and graduate students. The Oxford SU Executive Committee includes six full-time salaried sabbatical officers, who generally serve in the year following completion of their Final Examinations. The importance of collegiate life is such that for many students their college JCR Junior Common Room, for undergraduates or MCR Middle Common Room, for graduates is seen as more important than Oxford SU. JCRs and MCRs each have a committee, with a president and other elected students representing their peers to college authorities. Additionally, they organise events and often have significant budgets to spend as they wish money coming from their colleges and sometimes other sources such as student-run bars. It is worth noting that JCR and MCR are terms that are used to refer to rooms for use by members, as well as the student bodies. Main article: Throughout its history, a sizeable number of Oxford alumni, known as Oxonians, have become notable in many varied fields, both academic and otherwise, ranging from , British Army officer known better as Lawrence of Arabia to the explorer, courtier, and man of letters, , who attended but left without taking a degree ; and the Australian media mogul,. Moreover, have studied or taught at Oxford, with prizes won in all six categories. More information on famous senior and junior members of the university can be found in the articles. Politics 27 British have attended Oxford, including , , , , , , , , and. Of all the post-war prime ministers, only was educated at a university other than Oxford, while and never attended a university. Over 100 Oxford alumni were elected to the in 2010. This includes former , , and numerous members of the cabinet and. Additionally, over 140 Oxonians sit in the. At least 30 other international leaders have been educated at Oxford. This number includes , , , five , , , , and , Six , , Sir , , and , two and , two and , though the latter did not finish her degree , former Prime Minister of , of Jamaica, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago , former President of Peru , former Prime Minister of Thailand and the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a. Deputy Prime Minister of , was a in 1991. The Burmese democracy activist and , , was a student of St Hugh's College. Law Oxford has produced a large number of distinguished , and around the world. Within the United Kingdom, five of the current are Oxford-educated: , , , , and ; retired Justices include President of the Supreme Court 2012—2017 , , and. The twelve and nine that have been educated at Oxford include , , ,. The twenty-two count amongst them , , , , , , , , , , , , ; include and ; include , and. The British Government's have included , , , , , , , , , ; include Sir QC, Dame QC and Sir QC. In the , three of the nine incumbent are Oxonians, namely , , and ; retired Justices include , and. Internationally, Oxonians Sir served in the ; , sat in the ; Sir and sat in the ; , , as well as sat in the ; both , served as Chief Justices of the ; in Hong Kong, and Doreen Le Pichon currently serve in the , while and both served as Permanent Judges of the ; six of the and a chief justice of the now defunct were also educated at Oxford. Other distinguished practitioners who have attended Oxford include , QC, , QC, and QC. The university is associated with eleven winners of the , five in and sixteen in. Both and studied at the university and returned for research purposes. Notable scientists who spent brief periods at Oxford include developer of and the concept of ; and who formulated the and the thought experiment. Structural engineer , responsible for London's iconic , attributes her love of engineering to a summer placement during her undergraduate physics degree at Oxford. Economists , , , and all spent time at Oxford. Literature, music, and drama The long list of writers associated with Oxford includes , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , the poets , , , , , , and , and seven : , , , , , , and. Composers , , , , and have all been involved with the university. Actors , , , , , , , , , and were undergraduates at the university, as were filmmakers and. Religion Oxford has also produced at least 12 , 19 , and 20 , the most recent Archbishop being , who studied at and was later a Canon Professor at. Religious reformer was an Oxford scholar, for a time Master of. Several of the e. John's and Chancellor of the University, and the , e. The founder of , , studied at Christ Church and was elected a fellow of. The Oxford Movement 1833—1846 was closely associated with the Oriel Fellows , and. Other religious figures were , the third of the , , one of the appointed leaders of the and , the only Pakistani Catholic cardinal. Philosophy Oxford's philosophical tradition started in the medieval era, with and , commonly known for , among those teaching at the university. Though the latter's main works were written after leaving Oxford, Locke was heavily influenced by his twelve years at the university. Oxford philosophers of the 20th century include , author of , and , who specialised in personal identity. Other commonly read modern philosophers to have studied at the university include , , , , , , , , , , and. Likewise, , the creator of the famous , studied and taught at Oxford. Sport Some 150 Olympic medal-winners have academic connections with the university, including , quadruple gold-medallist rower. Other sporting connections include. Rowers from Oxford who have won gold at the Olympics or World Championships include , , , , , , , , , , , , , and. Many Oxford graduates have also risen to the highest echelon in cricket: , inventor of the , , , , , the only man to captain England at both cricket and football , , also served in the , , , , , , , , and. Oxford students have also excelled in other sports. Such alumni include player player ; Olympic gold medalists in athletics and ; basketball players and player and and player ; national champion ; footballers , , and ; fencer world champion and five-time Olympian ; Olympic gold medalist ; , , , , , , , and allegedly the inventor of ; runner who ran the first sub-four-minute mile , national champion ; and tennis player. Adventure and exploration Three of the most well-known and who attended Oxford are , one of the most notable figures of the , , whose life was the basis of the 1962 film , and. Other notable figures include , an explorer, , and spy, who, along with , helped establish the dynasties in what is today and and played a major role in establishing and administering the modern state of ; , who travelled in disguise to and journeyed with as the first European explorers to visit the in search of the source of the ; , member of the expedition to make the first ascent of ; and , adventurer and travel writer and elder brother of , creator of. Main article: The University of Oxford is the setting for numerous works of fiction. By 1989, 533 novels based in Oxford had been identified and the number continues to rise. Famous literary works range from by , to the trilogy by , which features an alternate-reality version of the university. It stars and most college shots are of and. Set in 1983 and based on the play by. Notable non-fiction works on Oxford include Oxford by. Retrieved 21 October 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 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The Americans; the Colonial Experience, Vintage, pp. Oxford and Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. Moody, Theodore William Moody, Francis X. Martin, Francis John Byrne, Oxford University Press 1991 , p. Retrieved 30 December 2015. Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Scheme. Oxfordshire Blue Plaques Board. Retrieved 30 December 2015. Brock and Mark C. The History of the University of Oxford Volume 7: Nineteenth-Century 2000 part 2, pp 571—95. Retrieved 10 November 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2012. St Anne's College, University of Oxford. Archived from on 28 April 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2018. St Hugh's College, University of Oxford. Archived from on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2018. Only in 1959 did the five women's colleges acquire full collegiate status so that their councils became governing bodies and they were, like the men's colleges, fully self-governing. Archived from on 12 March 2012. 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